Earth Science Frontiers ›› 2022, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 227-238.DOI: 10.13745/j.esf.sf.2022.1.41

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Pollution characteristics and biodegradation mechanism of petroleum hydrocarbons in gas station groundwater in the Tianjin Plain

LIU Xuena1,2(), LI Haiming1,2,*(), LI Mengdi1,2, ZHANG Weihua3, XIAO Han1,2   

  1. 1. Laboratory of Coastal Groundwater Utilization & Protection, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Chemistry and Food Technology (TUST), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300457, China
    3. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2022-01-30 Revised:2022-02-08 Online:2022-05-25 Published:2022-04-28
  • Contact: LI Haiming


Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in gas station groundwater is a common phenomenon. This study sought to sample and analyze gas station groundwater under various hydrogeological conditions to determine the pollution characteristics of petroleum hydrocarbon in gas station groundwater and the characteristics of groundwater chemical types. Factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were used to reveal the potential biodegradation mechanism of petroleum hydrocarbon in gas station groundwater. According to the results, groundwater chemicals can be mainly divided into four types: Cl-Na, HCO3-Na, HCO3-Ca, and SO4-Na types. The detection rate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the groundwater was 85.71%, and the detection concentration range was 0.02-0.35 mg/L. Factor analysis revealed that the main factors affecting the chemical composition of groundwater were water-rock interaction and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The correlation between TPH and groundwater chemical indexes showed that the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was negatively correlated with K+, Na+, Cl-, Mn, Mg2+, and SO 4 2 -, but not significantly correlated with pH, HCO 3 -, NO 3 -, NO 2 -, Ca2+, and Fe. Halophilic or salt-tolerant microorganisms might also be present in the gas station groundwater environment, which accelerates the TPH biodegradation rate as TPH concentration decreases with increasing salinity. In the microorganism degradation of TPH using electron acceptors ( SO 4 2 -, Mn, NO 3 -, Fe), the contribution percentage of electron acceptors were ranked as iron reduction (64.88%) >manganese reduction (24.86%) >sulfate reduction (5.78%) >nitrate reduction (4.46%). Thus, the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by Fe-Mg-reducing bacteria in gas station groundwater is the dominant reaction.

Key words: gas station, groundwater, petroleum hydrocarbon, biodegradation

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