地学前缘 ›› 2020, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 165-198.DOI: 10.13745/j.esf.sf.2020.6.24

• 微体古生物与古海洋 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔里木盆地西部白垩纪-古近纪海相地层框架及对重大地质事件的记录

席党鹏,唐自华,王雪娇,覃祚焕,曹文心,江湉,吴宝旭,栗源浩,张赢月,姜文彬,KAMRAN Muhammad,方小敏,万晓樵
  

  1. 1. 中国地质大学(北京)生物地质与环境地质国家重点实验室, 北京 100083
    2. 中国科学院 南京地质古生物研究所 现代古生物学与地层学国家重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210008
    3. 中国科学院 地质与地球物理研究所 新生代地质与环境院重点实验室, 北京 100029
    4. 中国科学院 古脊椎动物与古人类研究所, 北京 100044
    5. 中国科学院 青藏高原研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-22 修回日期:2020-08-28 出版日期:2020-11-02 发布日期:2020-11-02
  • 作者简介:席党鹏(1982—),男,博士,主要从事白垩纪—古近纪地层、微体古生物与古环境研究。E-mail:xdp1121@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41872009,41790452,41688103,41902020);现代古生物学与地层学国家重点实验室开放基金项目(GBL215010);111引智计划(B20011);中国地质调查局项目(DD20190009);中央高校基本业务费项目(2652018134)

The Cretaceous-Paleogene marine stratigraphic framework that records significant geological events in the western Tarim Basin

XI Dangpeng, TANG Zihua, WANG Xuejiao, QIN Zuohuan, CAO Wenxin, JIANG Tian, WU Baoxu, LI Yuanhao, ZHANG Yingyue, JIANG Wenbin, KAMRAN Muhammad, FANG Xiaomin, WAN Xiaoqiao
  

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences(Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
    2. State Key Laboratory Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
    4. Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
    5. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-07-22 Revised:2020-08-28 Online:2020-11-02 Published:2020-11-02

摘要:

塔里木盆地西部白垩纪—古近纪发生了大规模的海侵事件,形成一个喇叭状向西开口的海湾,该海湾属于东特提斯洋的一个分支。该地区白垩纪—古近纪海相地层记录了东特提斯洋演化和一系列重大地质事件,具有重要的研究价值,但对其地层的研究仍相对薄弱,对重大地质事件的研究还不够深入。本文拟通过详细的岩石地层、生物地层和其他地层方法,完善地层划分与对比框架,并在此基础上讨论Cenomanian/ Turonian界线大洋缺氧事件(OAE2)、白垩纪/古近纪界线(K/Pg)、古新世—始新世极热事件(PETM)、特提斯海进与海退等一系列重大地质事件。塔里木盆地白垩纪—古近纪海相或海陆过渡相地层自下而上为克孜勒苏群、库克拜组、乌依塔克组、依格孜牙组、吐依洛克组、阿尔塔什组、齐姆根组、盖吉塔格组、卡拉塔尔组、乌拉根组和巴什布拉克组,上述地层中含有丰富的有孔虫、介形虫、钙质超微、沟鞭藻、孢粉、双壳类、腹足类等化石,以及少量菊石、腕足类、海胆和鲨鱼牙齿等化石。综合的生物地层和年代地层研究表明,克孜勒苏群的时代为早白垩世Barremian-Albian期,库克拜组—依格孜牙组的时代为晚白垩世Cenomanian-Maastrichtian期(Cenomanian/Turonian界线可能位于库克拜组三段),吐依洛克组的时代为白垩纪—古近纪过渡期;阿尔塔什组的时代为古新世早中期,齐姆根组为古新世晚期—始新世最早期,盖吉塔格组—乌拉根组的时代为中始新世中晚期,巴什布拉克组的时代为晚始新世,但不排除最上部进入渐新世早期。塔里木盆地的海侵开始于克孜勒苏群中上部沉积期(Albian晚期—Aptian早期),但规模很有限,大规模的海侵始于晚白垩世Cenomanian早期;从晚白垩世—古新世,共经历了5次大规模的海侵—海退事件;大约41 Ma前后,海水退出盆地南部的昆仑山山前,34 Ma前后,海水退出盆地北部的天山山前。上述海侵—海退事件可能受构造和全球海平面变化的双重影响,但构造事件对海侵的启动和结束可能更具决定性的影响。阐述了塔里木盆地西部白垩纪—古近纪海相地层所记录的OAE2、K/Pg界线、PETM和特提斯海侵—海退等事件,其中笔者及团队第一次在塔里木盆地西部齐姆根组中所发现和报道的PETM事件,将有助于揭示全球近岸地区PETM的特征和生物环境响应。在未来的研究中,需要进一步厘清塔里木盆地西部地层序列,建立更加精细的生物地层和年代地层框架,加强对PETM和特提斯海侵—海退等重大地质事件的研究。

关键词: 塔里木盆地;白垩纪;古近纪;海相;地层;特提斯;海平面;古新世&mdash, 始新世极热事件

Abstract:

The Cretaceous - Paleogene interval in the northeastern part of the eastern Tethys witnessed a large-scale transgression event that resulted in the formation of the trumpet-shaped bay in the western Tarim Basin. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene marine deposits in the western Tarim Basin record the evolutionary history of the eastern Tethys including a series of major climatic events, but studies so far lacked a comprehensive chronostratigraphic division and correlation framework achievable through detailed lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and stratigraphic investigations. In this study, we improved the stratigraphic division and correlation framework using the aforementioned approaches, and we also discussed a series of major geological events. The Cretaceous to Paleogene strata in the western Tarim Basin constitute the Kezilesu Group and the Kukbai, Wuyitake, Yigeziya, Tuyiluoke, Altashi, Qimgen, Gaijitage, Kalatar, Wulagen and Bashibulake Formations. These formations are rich in foraminifera, ostracods, calcareous nannofossils, dinoflagellates, spores and pollens, bivalves, and gastropods, and contain a few ammonites, brachiopods, sea urchins, and fish teeth. The western Tarim Basin has become an important site for studying climatic events, such as the Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Based on the comprehensive biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic studies, the age of the Kezilesu Group is recorded as Barremian - Albian and the ages of the Kukebai, Wuyitake and Yigeziya Formations as Cenomanian - Maastrichtian. The Tuyiluoke Formation is the transitional period of the Cretaceous - Paleogene, whereas the age of the Altashi Formation is early to middle Paleocene. The age of the Qimugen Formation is late Paleocene to early Eocene, and the ages of the Gaijitage, Kalatar, and Wulagen formations are early to middle Eocene. Finally, the Bashibulake Formation is of late Eocene in age. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene strata from the western Tarim Basin were biostratigraphically and chronostratigraphically correlated with those from the surrounding Kuqa, Fergana and Tajik Basins as well as the Karakoram region. Additionally, five large transgression-regression cycles from the late Cretaceous - Paleogene were summed. A possible small marine transgression of the western Tarim Basin began in the middle and upper parts of the Kezilesu Group (late Albian to early Aptian); however, the first large transgression began in the Cenomanian Kukebai Formation. There were five large-scale transgression-regression cycles in the western Tarim Basin from the late Cretaceous to Eocene. The seawater retreated from the Kunlun Mts. subregion of the western Tarim Basin at approximately 41 Ma and retreated from the Tianshan Mts. subregion of the western Tarim Basin at approximately 34 Ma. These transgression-regression events were controlled by regional tectonic events and global sea-level changes; however, the tectonic events mainly controlled the beginning and end of the Tethys Sea in the western Tarim Basin. The major climatic and geological events in the western Tarim Basin, such as OAE2, K/Pg, PETM, as well as transgression and regression, are discussed in detail. We successfully marked the PETM events in the Qimgen Formation, providing significant scientific clues for the study of PETM events in the global nearshore area. The western Tarim Basin should be further explored stratigraphically to establish a more refined biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic framework to strengthen our study of major climatic and geological events in future.

Key words: Tarim Basin, Cretaceous, Paleogene, marine, stratigraphy, Tethys, sea level, Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum

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