地学前缘 ›› 2020, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 238-246.DOI: 10.13745/j.esf.sf.2020.5.38

• 表生成因矿物学:地表环境及其修复 • 上一篇    下一篇

含钾岩石微生物转化的分子机制及其碳汇效应

连宾,肖波,肖雷雷,王伟英,孙启彪   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学 生命科学学院, 江苏 南京 210023
    2. 盐城工学院 环境科学与工程学院, 江苏 盐城 224051
    3. 中国科学院 烟台海岸带研究所 海岸带生物学与生物资源利用重点实验室, 山东 烟台 264003
    4. 江西师范大学 生命科学学院 江西省亚热带植物资源保护与利用重点实验室, 江西 南昌 330022
    5. 九江学院 江西油茶研究中心/药学与生命科学学院, 江西 九江 332000
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-30 修回日期:2020-04-21 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 作者简介:连宾(1964—),男,教授,博士生导师,主要从事地质微生物学研究。E-mail:bin2368@vip.163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41772360,41373078,41173091)

Molecular mechanism and carbon sink effects of microbial transformation in potassium-bearing rocks

LIAN Bin, XIAO Bo, XIAO Leilei, WANG Weiying, SUN Qibiao   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Coastal Biology and Biological Resources Utilization, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
    4. Key Laboratory of Protection and Utilization of Subtropical Plant Resources of Jiangxi Province, College of Life Sciences, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
    5. Research Center for Jiangxi Oil-tea Camellia, College of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang 332000, China
  • Received:2020-03-30 Revised:2020-04-21 Online:2020-09-25 Published:2020-09-25

摘要:

岩石矿物的微生物风化是地球表层系统最为活跃和普遍发生的地质营力之一。微生物对含钾岩石(以硅酸盐矿物为主)的风化能够释放其中的钾、硅和钙等元素,并在合适的环境条件下促进矿物元素的碳酸化沉淀,这是地表元素地球化学循环的重要环节之一。微生物对岩石的生物转化作用既涉及微生物的生长繁殖和代谢调控,也与元素的迁移转化和次生矿物的演化序列有关,具有重要研究价值。采用矿物学、微生物学和分子生物学等相结合的研究方法,有助于系统地研究微生物促进含钾硅酸盐矿物的风化并耦联碳酸化过程及其分子调控机制。研究证实,在纯培养条件下,微生物风化含钾矿物主要采用酸解、螯合、氧化还原等多种方式的协同作用,并可通过调控相关功能基因的表达来响应缺钾的环境以实现其对含钾矿物的有效风化,显然这有赖于微生物通过长期进化而形成的精细的分子调控机制。在土壤生态环境中,微生物对矿物风化的显著特征是该生态环境中微生物群落协同互作的群体作用效应。微生物碳酸酐酶参与的硅酸盐矿物风化伴随碳酸盐矿物的形成过程可能是个长期被忽视的地表碳增汇过程,对该问题的深入探索有助于进一步理解地质演化历史中微生物对碳素迁移转化的驱动机制。加入含钾硅酸盐矿粉的有机肥已经显示出其在土壤改良、作物生长和增加土壤碳汇等方面的正面应用效果,这为利用硅酸盐矿物的生物风化作用来延缓大气CO2浓度的持续升高提供了新的思路。介绍了有关微生物对含钾岩石生物转化释放钾素的分子机理及其碳汇效应方面的研究进展,以期抛砖引玉,推动该领域研究的快速发展。

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关键词: potassium rock, silicate minerals, microbial transformation, molecular mechanism, carbon sink

Abstract:

Microbial mineral weathering is one of the most active and universal geological processes in the earth surface system. Microorganisms can degrade potassium-bearing rocks (mainly silicate minerals), release elements such as potassium, silicon and calcium, and promote mineral carbonate precipitation under appropriate environmental conditions, functioning as an important link in the geochemical cycles of earth surface elements. Microbial biotransformation of rocks involves growths and metabolic regulations of microorganisms, migration and transformation of elements and evolutionary sequence of secondary minerals-all are important research topics in mineralogy, microbiology and molecular biology. Combining researches in these areas is beneficial for systematically studying the process of microbial weathering of potassium-containing silicate minerals coupled with carbonation and its molecular regulation mechanism. It was confirmed that under the conditions of pure culture experiments, the synergistic effects of acidolysis, chelation, oxidoreduction and other chemical activities are effective in the microbial weathering processes, and the effective weathering can also be achieved by regulating the microbial relevant functional gene expression in response to potassium-deficient environments. Such effects clearly depend on a refined and specific molecular regulation mechanism through long-term evolution of microorganisms. In the soil ecological environment, a significant feature of microbial mineral weathering is the cooperative interaction of microbial communities in the habitats. The participation of microbial carbonic anhydrase in silicate mineral weathering, along with carbonate mineral formation, may be a long-neglected process of earth surface carbon sink. An in-depth exploration of such process will help us further understand the mechanisms of microbial driving carbon migration and transformation in geologic evolutionary history. The utilization of organic fertilizers containing potassium-bearing rock powders has shown positive effects on soil improvement, crop growth and carbon sequestration, which provides a new idea for using the biological weathering of silicate minerals to delay the continuous increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this paper, we reviewed the molecular mechanisms and carbon sequestration effect of potassium released from biotransformation of potassium-bearing rocks by microorganisms, so as to promote rapid development in this research area.

Key words: potassium rock, silicate minerals, microbial transformation, molecular mechanism, mineral weathering, carbon sink

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