地学前缘 ›› 2020, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 133-153.DOI: 10.13745/j.esf.sf.2019.12.3

• 非主题来稿选登 • 上一篇    下一篇

上天、入地、下海:极端条件下矿物学研究

束今赋   

  1. 束今赋北京高压科学研究中心, 北京 100094
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-10 修回日期:2027-05-02 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-05-20
  • 作者简介:束今赋(1942—),男,美国华盛顿卡内基研究院地球物理实验室研究员,2015年退休后,应聘为北京高压科学研究中心特聘研究员,长期从事高压实验技术、高压物理、地球与行星内部科学、高压化学、高压材料学等高压科学与技术的研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家“千人计划”顶尖人才与创新团队项目(2301-0101-顶尖千人专项,9920200-0101-NSAF)

Space, Earth, ocean: mineralogical studies under extreme conditions

SHU Jinfu   

  1. Center for High Pressure Science & Technology Advanced Research, Beijing 100094, China
  • Received:2019-03-10 Revised:2027-05-02 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-05-20

摘要:

上天、入地、下海,进行极端条件下的矿物学研究,研究微矿物,发现新矿物。主要利用金刚石压机,结合使用国内外同步辐射X-光源、中子源,以及其他多种物理的、化学的、光学的测试手段(如岩石矿物化学分析,光薄片测定,电子探针,离子探针,扫描电镜,透射电镜,红外、紫外、拉曼光谱,激光加热等),对来自天外的陨石、陨石坑样品、地球深处地幔源矿物以及海底甲烷水合物进行了一些研究。模拟不同温度和压力下各种不同成分的矿物材料的晶体结构、物理和化学性质。文章着重研究从地球内核到地壳海底的各种不同组分在不同温度、压力极端环境下形成的各种各样的典型矿物:从金属固体内核和金属液体外核中的ε-Fe到核幔边界(CMB)地球D″层的后钙钛矿(Post-Perovskite)结构(ppv)镁铁硅酸盐(Mg,Fe)SiO3,从下地幔中的铁磁性钙钛矿(Perovskite)结构(pv)镁铁硅酸盐布里奇曼石(Bridgmanite)(Mg,Fe)SiO3、镁铁氧化物(Fe,Mg)O和后尖晶石(Post-Spinel)结构的含Fe3+毛河光矿(Maohokite)(HP-MgFe3+2O4)到过渡带、上地幔和地壳中的镁铁硅酸盐、硅氧化物、铬铁氧化物和金刚石及其内含物以及甲烷水合物(CH4·H2O)等。进行高温高压极端条件下的矿物学研究,为探索地球结构性质、形成动力和发展历史提供了新的窗口。

关键词: 微细矿物, 高温高压, 极端条件, 金刚石压机, 同步辐射X-光源

Abstract:

Research of the Deep Space-Earth-Sea System involves micromineral study, mineral discovery as well as mineralogical investigations under extreme conditions, e.g. research on meteorolite samples and materials in meteorite craters, minerals in deep Earth, and seafloor methane hydrates. We mainly used diamond anvil cell (DAC) simultaneously in combination with synchronous radiation X-ray and neutron sources. In addition, we used various physical, chemical and optical methods (rock mineral chemical analysis, optical measurement, electron probe, ion probe, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, infrared, ultraviolet, Raman spectroscopy, laser heating, etc.). We investigated crystal structures and physical and chemical properties of mineral materials of different compositions under different temperature and pressure conditions. In this paper, we focused on a variety of typical minerals formed from various components at extreme temperatures and pressures from the Earths core to crust. They include ε-Fe in the metallic solid inner core and liquid outer core, post-perovskite structure (ppv) magnesium iron silicate (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in the D″ layer located at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), perovskite structure (pv) magnesium iron silicate in the lower mantle, Bridgmanite (Mg,Fe)SiO3, mafic oxide (Fe,Mg)O and post-spinel structure containing Fe3+ Maohokite (HP-MgO4), and magnesium ferrosilicate, silicon oxide, chromite, diamond and its inclusions, methane hydrate (CH4·H2O), etc., in the transition zone, upper mantle, crust and ocean bottom. The research of mineralogy under extreme conditions provides new insights into the structure and properties and dynamic evolution of the Earth.

Key words: microminerals, high temperature &, high pressure, extreme conditions, diamond-anvil cell (DAC), synchronous radiation X-ray sources

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