地学前缘 ›› 2020, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 254-261.DOI: 10.13745/j.esf.sf.2020.8.1

• 宝玉石、矿产综合利用、工艺及生命矿物研究中的成因矿物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

产于东西伯利亚的玉是发展当地独特石雕艺技的基石

Raisa M. LOBATSKAYA   

  1. LobatskayaIrkutsk National Research Technical University, Russia
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-15 修回日期:2020-08-05 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-09-25

Nephrite of Eastern Siberia as a basis for development of the original stone-cutting design of the region

Raisa M. LOBATSKAYA   

  1. LobatskayaIrkutsk National Research Technical University, Russia
  • Received:2020-07-15 Revised:2020-08-05 Online:2020-09-25 Published:2020-09-25
  • About author:lobatskaya@gmail.com

摘要:

本文研究了东西伯利亚玉矿的开发史。从新石器时代起,东西伯利亚的玉就已成为需求量很大的一种矿物资源。赋存于贝加尔湖区丰富的玉石促进了当地石雕艺技的蓬勃发展。西伯利亚的玉因形成机理迥异而绚丽多彩,该区玉石成因原则上可分为“去超基性岩化型”和“去碳酸岩化型”两种不同类型。东西伯利亚的玉成为重塑当地数千年来文明发展史的标志。文章概述了东西伯利亚的玉在亚洲北部古代社会中和当代科学研究中的重要价值和意义,讨论了该种玉的天然属性对艺术品和工业品制备过程中可能出现的各种问题,展示了东西伯利亚的玉的独特魅力及其与系列化设计工艺品间的差异。

关键词: 玉石, 东西伯利亚矿床, 石雕, 中国及西伯利亚古代石材加工文化

Abstract:

Nephrite has been used in Eastern Siberia historically as one of the most popular minerals since the Neolithic. The use of nephrite was facilitated by the numerous rich deposits of the stone near the area of Lake Baikal. In Siberia, nephrites come in different colors depending on the genesis of the deposits. There are two fundamentally different genetic types of the stone: apohyperbasite and apocarbonate. Nephrite turned out to be a very good benchmark for reconstructing the development of civilizations over several millennia. The practical role of nephrite in the lives of ancient societies of North Asia and in modern scientific researches has been shown. In this contribution, we discuss the possible ways the natural properties of nephrite can create artistic and artistic-industrial products. We also show the differences between real works of art and serial design products from nephrite.

Key words: nephritis, deposits of Eastern Siberia, stone processing, ancient cultures of stone processing in China and Siberia

中图分类号: